Choosing the right transmission for your tractor can make all the difference in how much you enjoy using your tractor. A transmission that is difficult to use can make using your tractor seem more like work than it should be. On top of that, a transmission that you have difficulties with can lead to expensive repairs down the line. So what are the different types of transmissions available on compact tractors, and what are the disadvantages and advantages of each as well as the tasks they are useful for?
Sometimes referred to as a “crash shift” because of the sounds it will make if you try to shift it on the go, this transmission uses gears of different sizes, and either slides them into position (in a sliding gear shift) or moves a collar between each gear (in a collar shift). Because these systems are not synchronized, the gears are always moving at different speeds. If you try and change them on the go, the gears will grind. These transmissions usually have anywhere from three to eight forward gears, depending on the era the tractor was made in, and one or two reverse gears.
These are the most basic of available tractor transmissions, but are also not all that user-friendly – not everyone wants to stop for gear changes. One wrong move can result in grinding gears, or even transmission damage. The good news is that, if you know what you are doing, a sliding shift transmission is near-indestructible and also the least expensive transmission to buy. A collar shift is slightly more expensive, but because the system can reduce shock to an extent, is more forgiving and usually lasts a little longer.
Also called “synchro-shift” transmissions, from the operator’s side, these function similar to the straight shift transmissions. They require a clutch pedal and manually shifting from one gear to another through the usage of a lever. Internally, though, the transmissions have a lot more going on.
Where regular manual/straight shift transmissions can be difficult to shift on the go, synchronized transmissions are made to make this easy to do. When shifting across synchronized gears, the gear that is being shifted into will have its speed decreased or increased to match that of a rotating collar. This is done through a brass cone applying friction to the gear. When the speed is equalized, the gears might not be quite lined up in rotation, so the cone can use triangular teeth to slightly rotate the gears into alignment. This all occurs within milliseconds, allowing the operator to have a clean and fast shift between gears.
Synchronized shift transmissions are available with only certain gears synchronized, or fully synchronized across all gears. They are relatively hardy transmissions, almost as durable as straight shift non-synchronized transmission, and are very similar to the manual transmissions found in automobiles.
This type of transmission is essentially the synchronized shift transmission, but with two important differences. The first is that there are just as many reverse as forward gears. What makes it a favorite of people who are planning on doing loader work is that there is a shuttle lever that allows the tractor to switch from forward to reverse quickly, with the gears themselves being synchronized from forward gears to reverse gears. This lets the tractor change those directions with one simple lever throw, instead of constantly having to throw a longer gear shift. These are complex transmissions and, while handy, are also more susceptible to failure.
While it has only gained popularity in the last few decades, the hydrostatic transmission is actually much older. A hydrostatic unit operates through foot pedals controlling the amount of hydraulic fluid being pumped to a hydraulic motor. As this occurs in a closed system, with no fluid in or fluid out, a reaction in the motor must occur any time there is a change in the output from the pump. To change direction, the fluid just needs to be reversed in the system, to cause the motor to operate in the opposite direction. The rate of the fluid being pumped in a direction determines the speed the motor operates at. As this rate can be varied infinitely this means the speed can vary infinitely within the range of the motor.
The advantages of the hydrostatic transmission are many. Operation is simple, the feel of the operation is ergonomic and is easy to learn, and the fact that the speed is infinitely variable means that any person can go at the speed they favor. They can also increase productivity, as one foot controls both the speed and direction of the tractor, allowing both hands and the other foot to be assigned to other duties.
While the hydrostatic transmission is easy and convenient, it still has some disadvantages. They do not do well with severe slopes, and cannot handle heavy loads as easily as the other transmissions. The biggest problem is that these transmissions are closed systems, and are non-serviceable. These means that, if the transmission malfunctions, you can’t just replace a cheap part – on most models, it will mean changing out the entire transmission.
Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT)
While it may feel similar to the hydrostatic transmission from the perspective of the user, the operation of the CVT is much different. CVTs generally operate by using a belt between conical pulleys. During use, these pulleys open and close as needed, varying the gear ratio. This allows for improved fuel efficiency, as the CVT allows the engine to operate at its most efficient RPM band. The CVT can also maximize power by running the engine at the RPM with peak horsepower, although this detracts from fuel efficiency. CVTs require quite a bit of care, and come at a higher cost than most other transmissions.
Choosing the right transmission for your situation shouldn’t be too difficult – our community can help you out, as can your local dealer. Hydrostatic and synchronized shift transmissions are the favorites on the market today, but if one of the other transmissions works well for you, don’t let yourself get talked out of it.